The modern period of civil right reform in the US can be divided into several phases, each beginning with isolated, small scale protests and ultimately resulting in the emergence of new, more militant movements, leaders and organizations. The Brown decision demonstrated that the litigation strategy of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) could undermine the legal foundations of southern segregationist practises, but the strategy worked only when blacks, acting individually or in small groups, assumed the risk associated with crossing racial barriers. Thus, even after the Supreme Court declared that public school segregation was unconstitutional, black activism was necessary to compel the federal government to implement the decision and extend its principles to all areas of public life rather than simply in schools. During the 1950s and 1960s, therefore, NAACP-sponsored legal suits and legislative lobbying were supplemented by an increasingly massive and militant social movement seeking a broad range of social changes.
Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the initial phase of the black protest activity in the post-Brown period began on December 1,1995. Rosa Parks of Montgomery, Alabama, refused to give up her seat to a white bus rider, thereby defying a southern custom that required blacks to give seats, toward the front of buses to whites. When she was jailed, a black community boycott of the city's buses began. The boycott tasted more than a year, demonstrating the unity and determination of black residents and inspiring blacks elsewhere.
Martin Luther King, Jr., who emerged as the boycott movement's most effective leader, possessed unique conciliatory and oratorical skills. He understood the larger signifance of the boycott and quickly realized that the nonviolent tactics used by the Indian nationalist Mahatma Gandhi could be used by southern blacks "I had come to see early that the Christian doctrine of love operating through the Gandhian method of non violence was one of the most polant weapons available to the Negro in his struggle for freedom." he explained. Although Parks and King were members of the NAACP, the Montgomery movement led to the creation in 1957 of a new regional organization, they clerly-led Southern Chrisitan Leadership Conference (SCLC) with King as its president.
King remained the major spokeperson for black aspirations, but as in Montgomery, little-known individuals initiated most subsequent black movements. On February 1, 1960, four freshmen at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College began a wave of student sit-ins designed to end segregation at Southern lunch counters. These protest spread rapidly throughout the South and led to the founding, In April 1960, of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). This student-led group, even more aggressive in its use of nonviolent direct action tactics than King's SCLC, stressed the development of autonomous local movement in contract to SCLC's strategy using local campaign to achieve national civil rights reforms.
(Adapted from http://www.history.com. Accessed February 12, 2014)
It is implied in text that Martin Luther King. Jr ....
was the only influential leader in the black community
started to lead his movement when he was young
was a member of NAACP
led the first black movement against racism in the U.S.
was an influential public speaker
Pada paragraf 3 dijelaskan bahwa King merupakan seorang pemimpin yang memiliki kemampuan mendamaikan dan berpidato yang unik. Dia yang akhirnya menyadari bahwa ia dapat menggunakan cara tanpa kekerasan seperti yang dilakukan Mahatma Gandhi untuk dapat memperjuangkan hak-hak orang kulit hitam, dan pada akhirnya King pun menjadi pemimpin organisasi baru yaitu SCLC yang memicu gerakan tanpa kekerasan yang lebih agresif seperti yang ditunjukkan pada bagian akhir paragraf terakhir. Maka jelas bahwa King merupakan seorang pembicara public yang memiliki pengaruh yang besar terhadap gerakan ini, sehingga jawaban E yang tepat
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