Questions 53 - 56 are based on the following passage.
When we think of Earth's water resources, we think of huge oceans, lakes, and rivers. Water resources like these are called surface waters. The most obvious type of water pollution affects surface waters. For example, a spill from an oil tanker creates an oil slick that can affect a vast area of the ocean.
Not all of Earth's water sits on its surface, however, A great deal of water is held in underground rock structures known as aquifers, which we cannot see and seldom think about. Water stored underground in aquifers is known as groundwater. Aquifers feed our rivers and supply much -of our drinking water. They too can become polluted, for example, when weed killers used in people's gardens drain into the ground. Groundwater pollution is much less obvious than surface-water pollution but is no less of a problem. In 1996, a study in Iowa in the United States found that over half the state's groundwater wells were contaminated with weed killers. You might think things would have improved since then, but, two decades on, all that's really changed is the name of the chemicals we're using. Today, numerous scientific studies are still finding weed killers in groundwater in worrying quantities: a 2012 study discovered glyphosate in 41 percent of 140 groundwater samples from Catalonia, Spain; scientific·.opinion differs on whether this is safe or not.
Surface waters and groundwater are the two types of water resources that pollution affects. There are also two different ways in which pollution can occur. If pollution comes from a single location, such as a discharge pipe attached to a factory, it is known as point source pollution. Other examples of point source pollution include an oil spill from a tanker; a discharge from a smokestack (factory chimney), or someone pouring oil from their car down a drain. A great deal of water pollution happens not from one single source but from many different scattered sources. This is called nonpoint-source pollution.
When point-source pollution enters the environment, the place most affected is usually the area immediately around the source. For example, when a tanker accident occurs, the oil slick is concentrated around the tanker itself and, in the right ocean conditions, the pollution disperses the further away from the tanker you go. This is less likely to happen with nonpoint source pollution which, by definition, enters the environment from many different places at once.
Sometimes pollution that enters the environment in one place has an effect hundreds or even thousands of miles away. This is known as transboundary pollution. One example is the way radioactive waste travels through the oceans from nuclear reprocessing plants in England and France to nearby countries such as Ireland and Norway.
(Taken from: https://www.explainthatstuff.com.waterpollution.html)
What is the main idea of the passage?
Many types of water pollution are affecting the groundwater.
There are many types of water in Earth.
The water resources on Earth are polluted.
The pollutions have many effect on Earth.
Groundwater pollutions are very dangerous for humans.
Mahasiswa/Alumni Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta
Jawaban yang tepat untuk pertanyaan tersebut adalah C. The water resources on Earth are polluted.
Soal meminta untuk menentukan ide pokok dari bacaan tersebut. Terjemahan dari soal adalah "Apa ide pokok dari bacaan tersebut?"
Ide pokok merupakan masalah utama yang dibahas dalam sebuah teks. Untuk menentukan sebuah ide pokok, pembaca harus memahami isi dari teks tersebut.
Pada paragraf pertama, terdapat informasi "When we think of Earth's water resources, we think of huge oceans, lakes, and rivers. Water resources like these are called surface waters. The most obvious type of water pollution affects surface waters. For example, a spill from an oil tanker creates an oil slick that can affect a vast area of the ocean." yang artinya "Ketika kita memikirkan sumber daya air di Bumi, kita memikirkan lautan, danau, dan sungai yang sangat luas. Sumber daya air seperti ini disebut air permukaan. Jenis pencemaran air yang paling jelas mempengaruhi air permukaan. Misalnya, tumpahan dari kapal tanker minyak menciptakan tumpahan minyak yang dapat memengaruhi wilayah lautan yang luas."
Berdasarkan terjemahan dari paragraf pertama, dapat diketahui jika teks tersebut membahas tentang sumber-sumber air beserta polusi yang ada di permukaan maupun yang ada di bawah tanah. Dengan demikian, ide pokok atau main idea yang seuai dengan bacaan tersebut adalah "The water resources on Earth are polluted."
Jadi, jawaban yang tepat untuk soal tersebut adalah C. The water resources on Earth are polluted.
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