Read the text and complete the statements that follow.
The Srivijayan capital was a cosmopolitan place, with many foreigners living there more or less permanently. Its residents included Chinese, Javanese, people from various parts of the South Asian subcontinent, including Bengalis and Gujaratis, and Persians from west Asia. Srivijayans, too, resided overseas, and especially in Canton where, from late in the seventh century to the middle of the eighth, they were seen as the leaders of the resident foreign trading community.
The Srivijayans were not simply merchants and traders; they were also skilled boat builders and navigators. The state became an important trading power in its own right, its vessels· sailing as far north as Canton in southern China and as far west as the Arab countries of West Asia. Although the Chinese undoubtedly had considerable shipbuilding ·skills, they had concentrated these skills primarily on the construction and operation of riverine and coastal shipping up until the tenth century, when Chinese traders. began to visit Srivijaya in their own ships. Until this time, trade between Srivijaya and China had been carried on by Srivijayan merchants, in ships built and crewed by Srivijayans.
Srivijaya was also a major center of Buddhism and Buddhist learning, attracting many foreign pilgrims. The Chinese scholar and pilgrim Yijing (I Tsing), for instance, late in the seventh century visited Srivijaya twice on his way to and from India, learning the Sanskrit language in which many Buddhist texts were written, and studying the Buddhist religion.
Srivijaya went into decline from about the twelfth centur}r, for reasons which are still in dispute. Some argue that the causes were essentially political and military. The Javanese kingdom of Mataram was at war with Srivijaya in the early part of the eleventh century, and at much the same time, in 1025, the capital was invaded by forces from Chola in India, the ruler and many of his officials being captured.
While these political and military developments 'were possibly quite significant in weakening and then destroying Srivijaya's power, probably more 'important were developments in the state's trade relationship with China. Srivijaya's near-monopoly on trade with southern China was broken as the Chinese themselves began to take a much more active role. Chinese merchants began to venture south on Chinese-owned ships, rather than waiting in the southern Chinese ports for Srivijayan merchants to come to them.
Adopted from: Colin Brown, A Short History of Indonesia, Australia, Allen & Unwin, 2003.
Srivijayans settled overseas, especially in Canton; and from ____________ they became the leaders of the resident foreign trading community.
Mahasiswa/Alumni Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka
Paragraf pertama menjelaskan bahwa orang Sriwijaya menetap di luar negeri, terutama di Kanton; dan dari akhir abad ketujuh hingga pertengahan kedelapan, mereka menjadi pemimpin komunitas perdagangan asing residen. Ini dapat dilihat pada kalimat "Srivijayans settled overseas, especially in Canton; and from from late in the seventh century to the middle of the eighth, they became the leaders of the resident foreign trading community."
Jadi, jawaban yang paling tepat adalah from late in the seventh century to the middle of the eighth.
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