B. Reading Activity
Life and Times of Ki Hajar Dewantara
(Raden Mas Suwardi Suryaningrat)
The development of good character should be the heart and soul of education, and should dominate the spirit of teaching. This was the philosophy of the "Father of Education" in Indonesia, Ki Hajar Dewantara. The reason, he said, was that teaching and character building are like two sides of a coin and cannot, and should not be separated.
Education, by definition, means guiding student lives in a strong foundation of good character, so that they would be civilized humans of highest moral fibre, thus laying the foundation of a great nation without distinction of religion, ethnicity, customs, economic and social status.
Ki Hajar Dewantara was born in the royal family of Yogyakarta on 2nd May 1889. His given name was Raden Mas Suwardi Suryaningrat which he later changed to renounce his connections with the royal family. He transformed himself into an activist, columnist, politician and pioneer of education for Indonesians. He fought for the rights of Indonesians during the· Dutch and Japanese colonial eras (www.tokoindonesia.com).
He was born into an aristocratic family that granted him the privilege of free access to education of his choice. He got his primary education from ELS (Europeesche Lagere School), then he continued his education at Stovia (Java Medical School) but, due to health reasons, he couldn't finish it. He started writing for newspapers and eventually all his writings were focused on Indonesian patriotism, thus anti Dutch. He was involved in the early activities of Budi Utomo and the lndiesche Party, which were both important in the early development of the pergerakan, the "movement" that grew up with an ascent of Indonesian national political consciousness (www.indonotes.wordpress.com).
He was exiled between 1913 and 1919, following the publication of two of his articles: "Ais ik eens Nederlander" (If I ware a Dutchman) and "Een voor allen en allen voor een" (One for all and all for one). He used his time in exile to learn more about education and obtained a Europeesche certificate (www.tokoindonesia.com).
Following his return, he focused more on cultural and educational efforts paving the way to develop educational concepts in Indonesia. He believed that education is very important and the most important means of freeing Indonesians from the clutches of colonization. He played a leading role in establishing "National Onderwijs lnstitut Taman Siswa" in 1922. This institution was established to educate native Indonesians during colonial times. This institution was based on these principles:
1. Ing Ngarsa Sung Tuladha (the one in front sets examples).
2. Ing Madya Mangun Karsa (the one in the middle builds the spirit and encouragement).
3. Tut Wuri Handayani (the one at the back gives support).
As Ki Hajar believed that character was not merely a theoretical concept, but a practical and living concept, he embodied his vision in his school, Taman Siswa. The central goals of Taman Siswa emphasized character building, including traits such as patriotism and love for the nation, and a sense of national identity. His vision was that Indonesians would be free from colonial powers, to fight for independence and have good character. He continued writing but his writings took a turn from politics to education. These writings later laid the foundation of Indonesian education. Froebel, Montessori and Tagore influenced his educational principles and, in Taman Siswa, he drew some inspiration from Tagore's Shantiniketan (asrirahayudamai.wordpress.com).
After independence, he was given the office of Minister of Education and Culture. For his efforts in pioneering education for the masses, he was officially declared Father of Indonesian Education and his birthday is celebrated as the National Education Day. His portrait was on the 20,000 rupiah note till 2002. He was officially confirmed as a National Hero of Indonesia by the 2nd President of Indonesia on 28th November 1959 (Tokohindonesia.com).
Ki Hajar Dewantara passed away on 26th April 1952 at the age of 69 years. His wife donated all Ki Hajar's belongings to Dewantara Kirti Griya Museum, Yogyakarta. He was a great man who spent his whole life serving his people and country.
C. Post-Reading Activity
Read the questions carefully. Note down your opinions and reactions to the questions. During the discussion with your teacher and classmates, offer your personal reaction and understanding of the text.
What information can we find about a person by reading a biography? Discuss.
Contoh jawaban untuk soal ini adalah Many information we can found in biography. As for general findings we can find their full name, parents name, spouse, child, birth place and date, his/her study, rank in society, achievements, and as for more detail we can find his/her story since his/her child till death. Any events happen in his/her life, tragedy, happy or conflict, his/her friends, betrayal or gaining new friends, all can be found in biography.
Soal ini menanyakan informasi apa saja yang bisa kita temukan tentang seseorang dengan membaca sebuah biografi. Diskusikan.
Dengan membaca biografi banyak informasi yang dapat kita temukan. Adapun untuk temuan umum kita bisa mengetahui nama lengkapnya, nama orang tua, pasangan, anak, tempat dan tanggal lahir, pendidikannya, pangkat di masyarakat, prestasi, dan untuk lebih detail kita bisa menemukan kisahnya sejak dia lahir, masa anak-anak sampai meninggal. Setiap peristiwa yang terjadi dalam hidupnya, tragedi, bahagia atau konflik, teman-temannya, pengkhianatan atau mendapatkan teman baru, semua dapat ditemukan dalam biografi.
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