The Cultivation System in Java
To overcome bankruptcy, the Dutch colonial government implement the cultivation system of cultuurstelsel (Dutch) in java in the mid of the 19th century. By the system, the Dutch government planned to monopolize the cultivation of export crops on java. As result, much of java become Dutch plantations.
The system obligated the village to devote 20% of their cultivation fields to export crops that were decide by the Dutch. Among the Dutch were tobacco, sugar-cane, rubber, and cocoa. Village had to work on the Dutch plantation for 60 days each a years. To make sure, people did not run away from the Dutch Government restricted human mobility. People were not allowed to travel freely without permission.
Those who broke the rule were arrested and imprisoned. To handle and control the process, the Dutch set up a network of local middlemen who profited greatly from the system. The Dutch give a lot of bonuses when their residency gave more crops then before. This led the local people to suffer severe operation For the local people, the system was very horrible. They suffer a lot because of their worsened living standards. They worked hard to plan the crops but they got little money, because the Dutch Government applied fix prices.
....the Dutch government restricted human mobility.
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